Very solid. As a rare breedsee their page for details, RomagnolaRomagnola Australiaand as a rare breedsee their page for details;census query sent 21/08/2022, Rubia Gallega seeRubia Gallega from Blackmoreand as a rare breed pleasesee their page for detailsthanks for census reply :), Santa GertrudisSanta Gertrudis Breeders' Association (Australia), Sardo Negro no organisation found in Australia. census by est. As a rare breed, no organisation found; Australian Sahiwal Genetics ison facebook, and this farm breeds them. GuernseyGuernsey Cattle Society of Australia, Hays Converter no organisation found, for details seeour page for them. There are some other miniature breeds in Australia we recognise as they've been around for the required time and generations and breed true, indeed some were developed here. For reference, 1 nanogram (ng) is a billionth of a gram (g). percentage of founding breed input varies. All known cattle breeds in Australia are listed on this page -below the rare breeds Watch List. "Bim Bimble", 1942 Yallaroi Rd, North Star, NSW Tony. Popular for crossing. In 2022 the Australian Red website had 22 Norwegian bulls listed with genetics available. We've got county at Alice Springs and Charters Towers as well as Emerald so bulls need to get out and walk. BoranAustralian Boran Cattle Inc.As a rare breedbreed details are also on their page. ARCBAThe Australian Registered Cattle Breeders Associationhttp://arcba.une.edu.au/members/ seedstock support organisation for several breeds. Alexandria composite A five way cross was used. He is homozygous black and we have begun to utilise genotyping to check the progeny of sires, like GCS Mardu M10, for their phenotypes. The Tropicana Association of Australia no longer exists. Information in this website is provided by the Agricultural Business Research Institute (ABRI) for informational and educational purposes and is not a substitute for specialist advice. Associated RegistryPO Box 231, 420A Lincoln StreetWamego, KS 66547 Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. As a rare breed or potentiallysee their page for details. They are well suited to all areas of Australia and have a large role to play in Australia's cattle industry in crossbreeding operations. Hayman, published by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation). Whilst every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the information reported through ABRI, ABRI officers and employees assume no responsibility for its content, use or interpretation. Click here for this years 5 Star Senepol Bull Sale Catalogue. Gouron Creek Senepols website designed to provide customers with information about Senepol cattle at Gouron Creek. ABRI run the studbook,contacted for census 31/07/2022 no response. Census replies to Yan, thank you. Your TidyHQ Account includes the email address and password you use to log in, as well as all the contact, payment and security details that you will use for this organisation and across all TidyHQ services. Canowindra, NSW 2804. Mishima also called Mishima Wagyu, a rare breed. Today Senepol can be found thriving in 21 states and around the world in such countries as Australia, Beingdeveloped. Southern Star Rural. Possibly any British genetics here registered with them? Created in the USA. Same with their Facebook page, no reply to census queryand looking at the posts, no reply to comment queriesby anyoneeither. Good scientificarticleaboutBanteng in Australia. Breeders the Baker family will retain the bull's other half share and has already entered into a production agreement with Semex Australia after director Jim Conroy considered Milparinka's suitability for semen sales to South East Asia and Brazil. Any more infowelcome. The same animal as the Brown Swiss originally - but it seems a beef option separated from the dairy line here. Our Senepol stud is based in Northern New South Wales, just south of the Queensland border. Pustertaler No organisation found here. Water buffaloAustralian Buffalo Industry Councilcensus query sent 10/08/2022..nothing. Can't find a registry anywhere - but this American based international company is doing a grand job of registering composite dairy breeds (and beef) and recognises VikingReds -even more sensibly, as Viking RedsInternational Dairy Registry. LBC Livestock & Business Centre-run studbooks for several cattle breeds. IF YOU HAVE NEWS, A SALE OR EVENT YOU WOULD LIKE ADDED TO THE SENEPOL NEWS OR CALENDAR, PLEASE EMAIL US Contact us via Email Phone 02 6773 2419 CONTACT INFO Executive Officer: John Thomas Registrar: Barb O'Shea Phone: 02 6773 2419 Fax: 02 6772 1943 Email: email@example.com ABN: 46 303 901 561 Address: Blonde d'AquitaineBlonde d'Aquitaine Society of Australia & New Zealand Inc.As a rare breed,details are on their page. Thank you Keith, for allowing us to use it. VikingRed is referred to as a breed now by some in the dairy industry. Progeny of one VikingRed and one Australian Red can be registered as an Australian Red. dual registering. However they could not stop the government so here they areDPI Gelbvieh census figures- about 7,000 animals and 145 breeders. They are well suited to all areas of Australia and have a large role to play in Australia's cattle industry in crossbreeding operations. It has long been thought that Senepol originated from just crosses between N'Dama cattle, imported in the late 19th century, and Red Poll cattle, but it is actually an admixed breed that consists of Red Poll, N'Dama, Criola and a trace amount of Zebu. Great to see a wonderfulAustralian breed created for the conditions. Designed by, https://registry.senepolcattle.com/bc/scripts/online-whole-herd-enrollment. Beefalo Australian version,Bison - Bos taurus. Developed inKiama Rd area, Queensland. 1 talking about this. Norwegian Red. straws sold here and used, but progeny registered as Australian Red Dairy Cattle, so not kept as a breed. Illawarra once known as Illawarra ShorthornIllawarras Australia.
Stablizer Gelbvieh - Hereford -Red Angus -Simmental. Created by Rick Pisaturo ofMandalong Stud. No organisation foundChianina Australiaoversees them. addy8faec5bec1965d22296137b424f431d8 = addy8faec5bec1965d22296137b424f431d8 + 'senepolcattle' + '.' + 'com'; A crossbred of 3 types depending on the % of Simmental and Brahamn, not yet a breed. Data is provided by respective breed societies and individual studs themselves, but it is advised that prospective buyers check dates, times and venues closer to sale date before travelling to attend sale fixtures. by F.H. No registry here found. Scans for signatures of selection in Russian cattle breed genomes reveal new candidate genes for environmental adaptation and acclimation- reproduced as a link here thanks to CreativeCommons. As a rare breed, details are on their page. They are polled, short haired, and colored red, black or brown. dept.researchers, then inColorado USA by Leachman Cattle. Piedmontese.. Note there is a Mexican breed called the Tropicarne, which means tropical beef, developed usingmostly Senepol, with Barzona, Charolais, Brahman and Angus; Tropicarne are not in Australia. The Senepol breed combines characteristics of heat tolerance and insect resistance with the docile nature, good meat, and high milk production of the Red Poll. They need to have tick resistance. "Jonaron" 4280 Cargo Road. organisation appears to have ended. Clayton and Sarah Maynard purchased Jonaron in 2010 and St Albans in 2020 and saw a niche in the Southern Australian market for the breeding of Senepol and Senepol/Angus (Senegus) cattle. One ofthe most heart-breaking and incomprehensible aspects ofcaring for rare breeds is seeing people take a horned breed on and immediately set about getting rid of the horns. Listed with RBTA only for genetic record. Can't find a registry in Australia (South African breed), perhaps askPinzgauer Australia. Not actually a breed as studbook open to many breedsbut maintain excellent records, andencouragingthe wide use of genetics which is important for genetic diversity and also sees somepeople gain an interest in a particular old breed thus going into those and savingthem. While other breed society exhibits were busy serving up steak sandwiches to the general public the Senepol exhibitors went quietly about their work of informing the visiting commercial cattlemen of the benefits of cross breeding with Senepol. Miniature breed. , The admixed cattle were selected for solid red color, natural polling and heat tolerance. IF YOU HAVE NEWS, A SALE OR EVENT YOU WOULD LIKE ADDED TO THE SENEPOL NEWS OR CALENDAR, PLEASE EMAIL US Contact us via Email Phone 02 6773 2419 CONTACT INFO Executive Officer: John Thomas Registrar: Barb O'Shea Phone: 02 6773 2419 Fax: 02 6772 1943 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ABN: 46 303 901 561 Address: Very much urge all breed organisatons to update "Contacts" on their website, and putting male, female and total population figures on the breedwebsite too, annually updated, perhaps in December - this would be exceedingly helpful - not onlyto Australiaand the international community which cares about the breed -but importantly forbreeders. Queenslander Red Brahman - Droughtmaster Queenslander Cattle BreedSociety is on facebook, can't find a website. For those of you that do not do online registrations, send your completed registration forms by email or regular mail to Associated Registry. Although Murray Greys claim to be around longer as a breed, their society didn't start until 1963. Their other advantage in not being to related to 98% of the Australian Bos Taurus population, despite their 100% Bos Taurus blood, gives them a greater degree of hybrid vigour when used over Bos Indicus and other Bos Taurus breeds. Maine Anjou also known as Rouge de Pres. No organisation found, several breeders online, may be withSenepol Australia, Senepol N'Dama x Red Poll. The Gulf and Barkly went into the AACo Composite, creatingthe Mitchell. You can expect complementarity from cross breeding with Senepol cattle that is second to none. Strongly recommend breeds using ABRIincludeother contacts on their breed website, such as their committee. Bison No website found, however theAmerican Bison Association of Australia has a facebook page, and somebreeders here have websites. Grey genetics in them. The Senepol is a Tropically Adapted, Bos Taurus, Polled breed of cattle known for their slick coats, quiet disposition, Excellent meat quality and hardiness. Hereford including PollHerefords AustraliaARCBA has total. Enlace al WHR: https://registry.senepolcattle.com/bc/scripts/online-whole-herd-enrollment, Heat Tolerant - Bos Taurus - Gentle Disposition - Tender Beef - Carcass Quality - Strong Hybrid Vigor - Maternal Efficiency - Calving Ease - Disease & Insect Resistant - Polled, For questions regarding the content of this website or other inquiries, you may send an e-mail to. 75% Hereford 25% Simmental. Hotlander a USA composite, genetics came hereinformationabout the type - not really a breed as new genetics still added; created fromSenesim (Senepol-SImmental) crossed to Brangas and these still put in occasionally. Meuse Rhine Issel no organisation here,see their page although not many details, a dairy industry organisation may know more; aka Rotbunt. We have Bulls, Calves, Cows, Heifers, Steers, Vealers, Weaner Heifers, Weaner Steers, Yearling Heifers, Yearling Steers, Yearling steers and more. Siring 93.5% black Senepols from purebred females. Each bull has something to offer in contributing to a wide genetic base for selection. Not bred long enough to be a breed. The Gulf and Barkly went into the AACo Composite, creatingthe Mitchell. "Although it is a relative newcomer to Australia, the Senepol breed has already made a significant contribution to the northern cattle industry. PHA M10 Milparinka with Semex Australia. This was covered in an article on the Virgin Islands in the February 1956 National Geographic. The SCBA is under new management. In 1942 another Red Poll bull was purchased, this time from St. Thomas, and two locally raised purebred Red Poll cows were added to the herd. Breeding Quality Senepol Cattle, in the Subtropics of Northern NSW, Australia. Rocky Repro have sold straws. Census query 11/08/2022. 75% Hereford 25% Simmental.  Among the African taurine breeds is the N'Dama breed from West Africa.. Maine Anjou Society(very helpful) andMaine Anjou Beef Australia, Mandalong Specials rare breed,pleasesee theirpage for details, Mashona became extinct in Australiabut this beautiful breed will re-establish afoothold here soon - see their website,Mashona Australiaand as a rare breed, pleasesee their page for detailscensus reply thank you :). Cows currently in the northwest slopes. The onlynumber on the website of this enormous company of giant feedlots- Northern Australian Pastoral Company-is disconnected. Individual studs encouraged to do this too, as often they have better websitesthan the breed body. TheWatch List Guidelines page has our definition of a breed. Access unlimited content and the digital versions of our print editions - This Week's Paper. Red AngusRed Angus Cattle Society of AustraliaOnly ABRI contacts on their website. Very solid. PinZyL (Pinzgauer - Nguni) also called PinZyL(for the original spelling the 2 should be inthe upper postion indicating squared as in maths). A good breederin Qld. Australian Simmental Breeders' Association, Blonde d'Aquitane Society of Australia and New Zealand, The Australian Senepol Cattle Breeders Association, Gelbvieh Cattle Breeders Society New Zealand, New Zealand Murray Grey Beef Cattle Society, New Zealand Red Devon Cattle Breeders Association, Simmental Cattle Breeders' Society of New Zealand, South Devon Cattle Society of New Zealand, Brahman Cattle Breeders' Society of South Africa, Limousin Cattle Breeders Society of South Africa, Simbra Cattle Breeders' Society of South Africa, Simmentaler Cattle Breeders' Society of South Africa, African Huguenot Breeders Society of Namibia, Afrikaner Cattle Breeders Society of Namibia, Beefmaster Cattle Breeders Society of Namibia, Brahman Cattle Breeders Society of Namibia, Brangus Cattle Breeders Society of Namibia, Braunvieh Cattle Breeders Society of Namibia, Charolais Cattle Breeders Society of Namibia, Droughtmaster Cattle Breeders Society of Namibia, Hereford Cattle Breeders Society of Namibia, Limousin Cattle Breeders Society of Namibia, Santa Gertrudis Cattle Breeders Society of Namibia, Magyar Charolais Tenysztk Egyeslete (Hungarian), National Association of Hungarian Charolais Cattle Breeders (English), 2022 BREEDPLAN - Agricultural Business Research Institute. Agtrader is only available to modern browsers. The Australian Senepol Cattle Breeders Association : Senepol: New Zealand NZ: Charolais Breeders New Zealand: Charolais: New Zealand NZ: Gelbvieh Cattle Breeders . Keith Murdoch's Angus Cattle Presentation- a great document on theAngus industry by the owner of Sparta Angus stud, years of experience in breeding - worthy reading. Coota Park Blue E(Angus - Shorthorn) bred for 25 years byCoota Park Blue E studnot yet a stabilised breed, other breeds beingadded,source, Beef Central, Corriente no organisation found. Good breeders register. Link to WHR: https://registry.senepolcattle.com/bc/scripts/online-whole-herd-enrollment. The breed that historically gave Belted Galloways their belt. Most odd. ABRI Agricultural Business Research Institute,University of New England, Armidale, run online studbooks for manybreeds. HighlandAustralian Highland Cattle Association In. The progeny of these animals, when they are able to breed, will be classed as purebred Senepols. A rare breed see their page for details. Reports suggest the early impact of the breed in NC as measured by their calves out of Limousin and Charolais females is very positive. Miniature Belted Galloway.Australian Galloway Association, Miniature GallowayAustralian Galloway Association. Normande No website found but there's a useful facebook page called Normande Cattle Australia and being rare,seetheir page for details. These results are showing that crossbreeding with tropically adapted Bos taurus produces animals with more tender meat and offers significant benefits for both north Australian beef producers and Indonesian feedlotters. Thank you to AACo for their help with thecensusand information - especially cattleman Matias, much appreciated :), Montbliardno organisation found in Australia. He is homozygous black and we have begun to utilise genotyping to check the progeny of sires, like GCS Mardu M10, for their phenotypes. Solera cattleA composite breed developed from Sanga breeds -bred in Australia,Zimbabwe, Argentina and the USA,Solera Cattle Australia. While we are still in the early stages of growth as a stud, we are expanding faster than we could have imagined. Dexter - Murray-Grey - Friesian - Jersey. Developed in NSW from 1975 on two properties. Extinct in Australia although a tiny glimmer of hopesee their page for details. Once animals get into the rare listing through low registrations, it invariably follows the overall population has declined and/or become genetically polluted. ( more info available on the "about us page") Our selection criteria has been centered around growth for age, fertility . Study of water buffalo genes, by Ying Zhan, Dianne M. Vancan and James S. F. Baker. This way they run in that environment, the Savannah environment. 5/16 Shorthorn, 3/8 Brahman, 1/8 Africaner, 1/8 Charolais, 1/16 Hereford. He has a nice amount of muscle and a good muscle pattern.". PHA Milparinka M10, has been off farm for a while and is currently residing with Semex Australia in Victoria. Current PHA sire, GCS Mardu L75, is 7/8thSenepol and 1/8thAngus. Extinct? Oops, there was an error sending your message. A rising four-year-old Senepol bull from the Planchonella Hill stud at Yallaroi via North Star has been sold for a breed record half share price of $32,000 to Hewitt Cattle Australia at Emerald, Qld, for use in their own composite bull breeding program. Going to migrate and transition to Northern Australia. The study showed that genetic samples of Senepol DNA collected from four different regions of Venezuela contained an average of 89% European taurine ancestry (ranging from 6695%), 10.4% Zebu ancestry (ranging from 433%) and 0.6% African taurine ancestry (ranging from 04.1%). Dexter). Greyman register listing in Murray Grey Beef Cattle. Genetics supposedly here but no evidence info welcome. Do a tremendous job. Australian Lowline Cattle Associationwould know more. No reply. The unrelatedness of Senepol Cattle to bos Bos Indicus and other Bos Taurus breeds will deliverer significant levels of heterosis to F1 progeny. Argentina alsobred its own Greyman breedderived from Murray Grey. As a rare breed, pleasesee their page for details. Shorthorns had none registered (ARCBA had0 as their total of registrations) which makes them look extinct here in thepure form, but obviously they're not. The Australian Bazadaise Cattle Societythere is alsoBeef Bazadaise Australia and Bazadaise Breeders of Australia. Exceedingly difficult to obtain any direct contact; 99% of emails go unanswered. History and Development of Senepol Cattle by H. D. Hupp - Agricultural Experiment Station - College of the Virgin Islands - Report 11 - April 1978, Mason's World Dictionary of Livestock Breeds, Types and Varieties - 5th Edition - 2002 - Page 104, Mason's World Dictionary of Livestock Breeds, Types and Varieties - 5th Edition - 2002 - Page 85, History and Development of Senepol Cattle by H. D. Hupp, genetic characterization using SNP markers, Australian Senepol Cattle Breeders Association, The Senepol Cattle Breeders' Society of South Africa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Senepol&oldid=1125930805, This page was last edited on 6 December 2022, at 17:00. TropicanaRed Brahman - Mandalong Special. No reply to queries. These offspring were dispersed to four main herds on the island. Due to breeds beingadded until recently, not regarded as a breed by our criteria, yet. Taronga too hard to find a contact. Argentina alsobred its own Greyman breedderived from Murray Grey. document.getElementById('cloak8faec5bec1965d22296137b424f431d8').innerHTML = ''; Can't find an organisation. "It's a long stretchy thing with a bit of punch," he said noting that PHA Milparinka would be used over IVF Charolais/Droughtmaster heifers. The below don't all fit ourcriteria ofa breed, Includes extinct breeds that were here, and thoseextinct only in Australia, asa genetic record. The Senepol and Senepol Composite herds are run on high rainfall country, east of Malanda, near Mt Bartle Frere, Queensland's highest mountain. The registration program is available online. Arare breed sodetails are on their page. Chondrodysplasia dwarfism in miniature cattle, Scans for signatures of selection in Russian cattle breed genomes reveal new candidate genes for environmental adaptation and acclimation. in Australia and run on their vast northernproperties. The Senepol breed of beef cattle was developed on the Caribbean Island of St. Croix. Minature Highland ask theAustralian Highland Cattle Association- studbook run by ABRI. var addy_text8faec5bec1965d22296137b424f431d8 = 'admin' + '@' + 'senepolcattle' + '.' + 'com';document.getElementById('cloak8faec5bec1965d22296137b424f431d8').innerHTML += ''+addy_text8faec5bec1965d22296137b424f431d8+'<\/a>'; Woodbourn Stud at Cressysold some to the UK where they exceeded expectations, winning many comps. Hereford came through in Belmont Reds used in thefirst cross. He kept this cross going and kept the grey cattle and a grey bull as theyoutperformedhis Angus. 042983 2228. Developed in Nebraska by govt ag. Use your username and password like you have done in the past. an Australian website, for information. Use your username and password like you have done in the past. Senepol Bull for Sale Livestock Cattle Senepol bull previously bred by Antigua Senepol Stud, 36 Months of age, Quiet, Easy handling, 7 in 1, Blooded, Prime working condition, naturally polled. Senepol Cattle. In 1918 Henry's son, Bromley, bought a Red Poll bull from Trinidad (which originated in England) to improve the cows' milking ability and remove their long horns. Bred in Denmark, Sweden and Finland, about 800,000 registered with the original organisation. ABOUT US. We are preparing our bulls for the 2022 5 Star Senepol Bull Sale on Monday 19th September For any pre sale enquires please contact Geoff ph: 0429026121 email: Geoff@5stargenetics.com.au 2022 Bull Sale Catalogue Click HERE 2022 Supplementary Sheet 1 Click HERE 2022 Supplementary Sheet 2 Click HERE Home to Maynard Cattle Co. - note that there is movement between registers i.e. No answer from one, the other said to ask ARCBA - which does not register, but which notes total annual registrations from ABRI. The name Senepol was adopted in 1954 and a breed registry was established in the late 1960s. Emailed the website's main email contact (Office) on 11/08/2022. The Gulf Composite was:50% Senepol,25% Brahman,12.5% each Charolais and Red Angus. var addy5a9484987aa67b04f705fd4a4366e791 = 'admin' + '@'; Kynuna Composite1/8 Brahman, 3/8 Shorthorn, 1/4 Tuli, and 1/4 Red Angus. All here are registered. Golden Cross Holstein - Viking Red -Jersey. with the establishment of the Virgin Islands BCIA. Hereford, TraditionalCotmore Herefordsalso rare. Gouron Creek and Planchonella Hill Senepol Studs have recently returned from Showcasing Senepol cattle as a profitable cross breeding option for cattle breeders as part of the Commonwealth . Janet). Favor completarlo a la mayor brevedad posible. People had long bred Blues as they commanded top market prices as they had hybrid vigour so didn'tforma breed from them (there is a breed of Blue Greys now in the UK). What is a breed? Barzona Breeders Association of Australia Ltd seems to have folded. Mob - 0439 029 204. DexterDexter Cattle Australia Inccensus query sent 24/08/2022; noreply, but LBC kindly supplied details (thanks Yan). PinzgauerAustralian Pinzgauer Breeder's Association- contact email doesn't work; as a rare breed, pleasesee their page for detailscensus query sent 25/08/2022. Get started now for free. PH - 02 6364 3248. This email address is being protected from spambots. Red Brahman - Mandalong Special. ARCBAhave zero registrations recorded for Shorthorns in Australia. Lakeview Senepol Stud was established in early 2018 and is located in the Northern Rivers area of NSW. Belted GallowayAustralian Belted Galloway Association Inc.andAustralian Galloway Association. La SCBA est bajo nueva administracin. ParthenaiseParthenaise Beef Cattle Australasia(breedersite, planningto be a registry) andParthenaise Cattle Australia(good breeder site withlots top photos), and as a rare breedsee their page for details. The stud isnow a MurrayGrey stud;probably hasTas. Brahmousin Brahman - Limousin. "He is of the right style and type," Mr Conroy said. Australian Brahmousin Association, Brangus Angus - Brahman. We have been breeding cattle for the last 40 years and 100% tropically adapted Bos Taurus cattle for the last 15 years. Australian breeds in pink. Miniature Cattle -discussing genetics and dwarfism, by Grace Vickery. docile temperament - being easily managed and handled in extensive pastoral conditions. Phone: (785) 456-8500 Fax: (785) 456-8599. Box 231, 420A Lincoln StreetWamego, KS 66547Correo electrnico: This email address is being protected from spambots. If you do not agree to the Terms and Conditions, please do not use this website. Australian Pinzgauer Breeder's Association, Red Brahman - Droughtmaster Queenslander Cattle BreedSociety is on facebook, can't find a website, Santa Gertrudis Breeders' Association (Australia), Angus -Galloway. Australian Gelbvieh Cattle Associationmore a cross at present than a breed. due diligence. PHA Milparinka M10, has been off farm for a while and is currently residing with Semex Australia in Victoria. Please contact Associated Registry for all your SCBA registry questions and needs. Even commerical breeds have a percentage of seedstock that makes the breed viable and keeps them from becomingrare. BrahckleBrahman - Speckle Park. The Senepol is a Tropically Adapted, Bos Taurus, Polled breed of cattle known for their slick coats, quiet disposition, Excellent meat quality and hardiness. At the moment the stud has a 180-head breeding herd. dual registering. document.getElementById('cloak5a9484987aa67b04f705fd4a4366e791').innerHTML = ''; In 1977 a plane carrying 22 Senepol left for the U.S. mainland, 29 years later, the Senepol Cattle Breeders Association recognizes over 500 breeders and more than 60,000 animals in database. Brahman - Shorthorn - other British breeds mostly Hereford. So a usefulorganisationbut you still need to have a sleuth about to check figures for a census i.e. Much faster page-loading. In the 1950s, with sugar cane becoming less economic, the United States Department of Agriculture put resources into the application of scientific breeding to Nelthropp Senepol under Richard Marshall Bond..